With the continuous improvement of plastic properties, plastics are widely used in automobiles to make a variety of interior decorative parts, and now can be used to replace some metal materials to make certain structural parts, functional parts and exterior decorative parts. This not only meets the performance requirements of certain automotive components, but also meets the requirements of lightweight vehicles.
At present, the percentage of plastic materials in the quality of the whole vehicle is 8% to 15%. The use of plastics in the automotive sector is no longer a new topic.
The production and per capita share of automobiles have also increased substantially, and the frequency of scrapping and updating has naturally increased. In recent years, the recycling of used automotive plastics has attracted great attention from countries around the world.
The relevant departments of the Chinese government have given great attention. As early as February 2006, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the State Environmental Protection Administration jointly promulgated the "Technical Policy for the Recycling of Automobile Products" to guide and promote the design and manufacture of automotive products in China. Work on scrapping, recycling and reuse. As an environmentally friendly material, plastic is widely used in the automotive industry due to its strong plasticity, light weight and high recycling efficiency. Plastics are increasingly used in interiors, exteriors, and functional structural parts.
We cite a few typical types of plastics used in automobiles, and do a simple analysis of their crushing and recycling in manufacturing:
â˜… Bumper, instrument panel and other difficulties: structural shape, large size, including glass fiber bumper, instrument panel and other large-sized components, the choice is generally ABS, PPO, PP, PVC and other enhanced engineering plastics. These components will increase the strength of the material by adding glass fibers. Therefore, the wear resistance of the pulverizer tool and the inner wall of the pulverizing chamber is relatively high during pulverization and recovery. In addition, the size of these components is large, and in order to improve efficiency during pulverization, most of them will use automatic feeding---------------automatic separation of dust----one-stop bagging Production line equipment, only need to invest 1 person, can complete the traditional work mode 3-5 personal work can be completed, and improve efficiency 30-50%.
â˜…The steering wheel, interior handle, door trim panel, door and window seals, fenders and other difficulties: Elastomer soft rubber is not easy to cut these parts, most of them use PU (foaming), PVC artificial leather, TPV, plastic thermal elastomer , EPDM rubber, etc., these materials are characterized by elasticity, strong deformation ability and good hand feeling. In the pulverization and recycling, these materials present difficult problems such as soft rubber being difficult to cut, hot-sticking, agglomeration, and unloading. An elastomer-specific shredder must be used. Different from the ordinary pulverizer, this pulverizer is designed for elastomer and rubber. It has the characteristics of soft rubber in the tool material, cutting angle, rotation speed and tool shaft assembly method. The material can be quickly cut into granules and matched. Use a special screen to make the cutting smoother. For temperature-sensitive special elastomers and rubber (such as low temperature TPU, high purity PP, hot melt adhesive, etc.), low temperature environmental pulverization can be added to reduce the physical property changes caused by temperature rise.
â˜…The interior and ceiling canopy are generally made of plastic fiber and plastic wool material. The fiber material is basically made of plastic materials, so it can be crushed and crushed for further recycling. What should be paid attention to when the plastic fiber is recycled? The high speed rotation of the cutter shaft is easy to be powdered; while the fiber material can only be crushed by shearing. Therefore, the crushing and recycling of such materials is different from ordinary hard plastics. It requires relatively high material requirements for crushing tools: ordinary hard plastics are generally brittle because of their high hardness. Pay special attention to the tool material and the choice of cutting angle.
â˜…The main considerations of the lamp, lampshade and car cover are transparency and reflective performance, so the materials used are transparent PC, PMMA and so on. When crushing and recycling such materials, it is necessary to avoid contamination of the raw materials by the crusher body, and also to separate the dust generated in the crushing. If the powder is infiltrated into the transparent pellets, it is likely to cause yellowing of the product or black spots during molding. Ordinary shredders can be used, but dust removal is required. This type of material can be achieved by pulverizing with a conventional pulverizer, but it is preferable to add a dust removing device at the rear end of the pulverization. It is possible to remove more than 90% of the dust at the same time as the bag is pulverized, so that the performance and molding quality of the pulverized material are closer to the raw material when it is reshaped.
â˜…The amount of control of the car control line in the car, although not the proportion of rubber and plastics, but its recycling value can not be underestimated. Traditional recycling methods: large pollution, low utilization rate The main components of the control line are PVC sheath and copper core. Recycling is only valuable if you separate the two materials. However, because these control lines are uneven in thickness and disordered, the traditional dialing machine does not work. The old recycling method is to incinerate the outer layer of PVC to obtain the internal copper wire. This method causes environmental pollution on the one hand and PVC plastic on the other hand.
â˜…Recent recovery method: high cost performance, low pollution and copper-plastic separator, which is to smash these messy control lines into rice grain size, and then use PVC particles and copper particles to separate the specific gravity to obtain clean PVC particles and copper particles. . The separation cleanliness of the two materials can reach more than 99%. Can be directly reused separately, the entire process uses physical methods, does not change the performance of the material, and will not cause secondary pollution.
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